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What I learned today

One day a week I try to do nothing but learn new things. It's a nice break from answering emails, foraging, thinking of new projects, and all the other random things that fill my days. It's supposed to be on Wednesday, but seeing as how I spent all yesterday staring into the bottomless snakepit of bureaucracy known as the DMV, this weeks learning day is a thursday. This is what I learned.... Cooks Illustrated:

- Several common foods, when cooked, impart a umami, (or 5th taste) to foods. This effect is reached by their high levels of glutamate.

-some common foods are

-mushrooms

-tomato

-salted pork

-Anchovies contain a chemical known as inosinate

-inosinate, when added to glutamate rich foods (like a beef stew with tomato), increases the glutamate flavor by as much as 15 fold

Saveur:

-Pork is cured in one of two ways, wet or dry cured

-Dry cured pork

-rubbed with salt, then aged from 24-50 days

-the salt acts through osmosis to draw the moisture out of the low salinity enviroment of the meat, towards its high salinity exterior

-the meat loses between 18-36% of its weight during this step

-the meat is then rinsed off, and left to age in an environment between 40-50 degrees farenheit

-during this step, the remaining salt works its way into the meat, breaking down the proteins to create , amino acids such as glutamate, giving the finished product the flavors we find in cured meats such as prosciutto

-eating cured me raw it is a fairly recent development which came about with more standardized pig breeding practices, which help to ensure freedom from disease in the meat.

-Wet cured meat

-this process came into fashion with the invention of refrigeration

-refrigeration allows meat to hold that is not fully cured

-the meat is either brined (soaked in salt water), or injected with a brine solution to give it the flavor of dry cured

-this method is cheaper and faster, but with mediocre results

LLC or Corporation:

-Sole proprietorship

-must file a schedule C, as well as a 1040

-taxes are "passed through" to the owner

-"passing through" is the term used when income from a business is taxed at the personal rate of the owner. This is contrasted with corporate tax, which is much lower, but can only be claimed with corporate status

-LLC

-Created specifically to give small business owners the benefits of incorporation

-Owners still pay "pass through" taxes

-Gives the owners the limited liability benefits of a corporation without the restrictions of a C or S corp

-these liability benefits protect the owner of an LLC from lawsuits arising from debt or injury incurred when carrying out corporate business

-Can form with one or more owners

-Must still file schedule C, as well as 1040 personal income form

-To create, must file "articles of organization" with state

-Should also file LLC operating agreement

-this form governs how profits are distributed throughout the LLC

Corporation:

-Separate legal entity from its owners

-Pays its own taxes, which are separate from the owners/shareholders of the corp.

-two types

-C corp

-basic corporation

-S corp

-historically this is what a small business owner would create to gain the benefits of incorporation, but it as fallen out of favor with the invention of the LLC

-Corporation can be created with one or more owners

-Corporate taxes are significantly lower than personal taxes

-15% up to $50,000

-25% up to $75,000

-Files form 1120 with IRS

-Incorporation brings with it a good deal of responsibility as far as record keeping, so a small organization is often better suited to an LLC

Q: Does the name of the corporation have to be the same as the business?

Limited Liability-

-Corporations and LLC's offer a good deal of liability protection for their owners. Protecting them from lawsuits and debt. There are a few exceptions

-Unpaid taxes

-Unlawful or intentionally fraudulent actions

-Lawyers call this "piercing the corporate veil"